MIOX is exhibiting and presenting a new technical paper at the SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium on May 20-21 in Galveston, TX. Our technical presentation by Dr. Andrew Boal focuses on produced water treatment using MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators to generate chloramines in situ through the reaction of hypochlorite with ammonia.
Title: Chloramine: An Effective Biocide for Produced Waters
Objective/Scope: Produced waters containing high levels of oxidant demanding chemicals such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, iron, and manganese are often thought to be difficult to disinfect using oxidizing biocides such as hypochlorite. It is the goal of this paper to present evidence that chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of ammonia present in produced water with hypochlorite added as a disinfectant can effectively control microbial populations in produced water.
Methods, Procedures, Processes: Testing was accomplished by treating produced waters being held in retention ponds with a hypochlorite-based disinfectant solution produced at the pond location using a mobile on-site generation (OSG) system. OSG in this treatment scenario involves the electrolysis of sodium chloride brines to yield a hypochlorite-based oxidizing biocide solution. This solution is then injected into the produced water at a rate to ensure that the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) of the treated water is around 450 mV. Samples of both the raw and treated water were analyzed for both chemical composition as well as microbial populations.
Results, Observations, Conclusions: Raw water in this study was found to consistently have relatively high ammonia content in the range of 58 to 68 mg/L along with an ORP in the range of -87 to 190 mV. Populations of Acid Producing Bacteria (APB) and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) were found to be 1010 and 1011 MPN/mL, respectively. Treatment also resulted in a clear visual difference in the produced water, with the raw water being black in color with the treated water having a muddy brown coloration. On site analysis of the treated water fond that the ORP after oxidant injection was between 464-543 mV, a value consistent with the presence of chloramines and not free chlorine which is supported by the measurement of a free chlorine residual of only 1.1 mg/L but a total chlorine residual of 55 mg/L. Populations of APBs and SRBs in the treated water were found to be 1 and 10 MPN/mL, respectively, representing substantial reductions in the initial populations. Overall, this data clearly demonstrates that chloramines generated in situ through the treatment of high ammonia waters with OSG produced hypochlorite can effectively control the populations of key microbes in produced waters.
Novel/Additive Information: Effectively controlling microbial populations using chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of hypochlorite with ammonia often present in produced water offers the ability to achieve required disinfection with oxidizing biocides without meeting the total oxidant demand of the water being treated.
A major semiconductor manufacturing facility replaces bromine and hypochlorite water treatment regimen with MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution to recycle tooling process water for industrial cooling tower water treatment. The installation is particularly important as it proves yet again Mixed Oxidant Solution as an effective biocide for ammonia-laden waste water and in high pH environments. Furthermore, the facility will:
Save over $240,000/year on chemical costs alone with MIOX
Improve plant safety by eliminating 10,000 gallons of chemical stored on site
Reduce corrosion (mild steel & copper)
Reduce chemical dose
MIOX Senior Scientist, Dr. Andy Boal, will present a paper on the topic at the 2015 Cooling Technology Institute (CTI) conference, “Alternative To Bromine Improves Cooling Water Microbial Control and Overall Treatment”.
Watch this video to learn how MIOX works in cooling towers:
Top Ammonia producer replaces chlorine gas with MIOX sodium hypochlorite chlorine generator and is successfully controlling biological contaminants for cooling tower water treatment. MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators are designed to produce the absolute lowest cost hypochlorite on the market. Modular industrial water treatment system designs by MIOX give customers the option of switching between chlorine generator cells and MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution cells – all within the same enclosure and footprint.
Two major district energy centers in Phoenix, Arizona, USA replace cocktail of chemicals (stabilized bromine, anti-corrosion, antiscalant) with MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution for cooling tower water treatment. The stabilized bromine regimen was replaced with two (2) MIOX Vault M30s at each facility. MIOX on-site Mixed Oxidant Solution and chlorine generators require only salt, water and electricity to produce extremely effective, yet environmentally-benign water disinfectants a the point of use.
Mixed Oxidant Solution has been proven in multiple studies and applications to be better at biofilm removal and microbial inactivation, while lowering water treatment costs and improving facility safety.
MIOX Vault M30 Mixed Oxidant Solution on-site chemical generator replaces stabilized bromine at one of two major district energy facilities in Arizona
Parkson Corporation – MIOX’s exclusive partner for municipal water treatment in the United States and Canada – announces it’s recent installation with Paducah Water Works in Kentucky. Parkson’s private labeled MIOX product line, MaximOS, was selected by the City of Paducah to replace delivered sodium hypochlorite at its downtown water treatment facility. The 900 lb/day Mixed Oxidant Solution generator has helped the City of Paducah improve their water treatment operation in numerous way including:
Reduced operating costs
Improved water quality
Increased facility safety by removing storage of chemicals
25-30% reduction in Alum chemical usage to achieve a settleable floc particle
MIOX is pleased to announce that we have been selected as the preferred technology to replace chlorine gas used in the final disinfection of wastewater from the treatment plant in Tuxtla City, Mexico which is operated by TICSA. In conjunction with Veolia Mexico, the MIOX on-site sodium hypochlorite chlorine generator system was chosen over competing technologies to improve safety at the facility.
The Tuxtla City wastewater plant is surrounded by residential neighborhoods and concerns over long-term safety drove TICSA to select a safer solution that was also economical. The ability to use salt to generate chlorine avoids transporting hazardous chemicals through the City on the way to the plant. The system should be operating by the summer of 2015.
The project scope includes two MIOX RIO H4 on-site generators. This equipment produces up to 800 pounds per day sodium hypochlorite and will disinfect wastewater for over 500,000 residents in Tuxtla City, Mexico. MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators are designed to produce the absolute lowest cost chlorine available on the market. Many facilities are turning to MIOX HYPO systems for safety, economic, and process benefits.
Two (2) MIOX RIO H4 Chlorine Generators capable of producing up to 800 pounds per day sodium hypochlorite for water disinfection.
Hydrological fracturing continues to expand the opportunity for domestic energy production, although both the increasing demand for water to use in the process as well as the increasing amount of produced water resulting from hydrological fracturing both create environmental challenges for this critical energy production process. Due to these concerns, more producers are turning to the reuse of produced water through many hydrological fracturing jobs. Although produced water reuse is effective at mitigating water sourcing and disposal concerns, proper treatment of these waters between jobs is critical.
Microbial control in produced waters slated for reuse applications is among the most important treatment processes. Without adequate disinfection, the growth of excessive microbial populations can negatively impact well drilling and production in several ways, including causing corrosion and the souring of the well. While a number of biocides can be used to disinfect produced waters, a number of operational and economic factors must be considered when choosing the best biocide for a given job. Chemical complexity of produced water is also an often-considered factor, but until now, the impact of the produced water on microbial response to specific biocides has not been considered when choosing the best biocide.
Recently, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh published a report in the journal Environmental Science and Technology which described the results of a study they conducted regarding the impact of produced water on the inherent susceptibility of bacteria to glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite. They found that exposure of bacteria to the highly saline conditions found in produced waters caused the bacteria to respond to stresses caused by that environment on a molecular level. These changes, in turn, caused the bacteria to become more resistant to glutaraldehyde and more susceptible to inactivation with hypochlorite.
MIOX’s Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS), a hypochlorite-based chemistry, has been deployed to treat produced waters from a variety of shale plays and has consistently been proven to provide exceptional levels of microbial population control. Results from this latest study help explain the high degree of performance seen by MIOX’s customers who use MOS to disinfect produced water. As produced water reuse continues to increase in popularity, MIOX looks forward to working with partners and customers throughout the industry to provide a reliable disinfectant solution for these waters and applications.