As we have recently seen in the news, in New York there have been more 10 deaths with more than 100 people infected with Legionnaire’s disease. Even though most of the water treatment for cooling towers are treated with certain biocides for legionella prevention, why do we still see roughly 24,000 cases of Legionnaire’s disease every year across the globe? The answer: Conventional water treatment solutions are not sufficient because they do not remove biofilm. Hence, inactivating Legionella is easy with Chlorine when it does not hide behind the biofilm. Meaning long term Legionella prevention is only possible with biofilm removal, water disinfection, and prevention of future biofilm growth.
Biofilm is a breeding ground for Legionella. Complete removal of biofilm and on-going treatment of legionella in water systems is the only way to eliminate the deadly bacteria.
Legionella is a ubiquitous aquatic organism that thrives in warm environments (32°C to 45°C) and causes more than 90% of Legionnaires disease cases. The Legionella pneumophilia organism hides beneath the polysaccharide biopolymer films that protected biofilm from many commonly used water disinfectants. As water circulates during normal operation, biofilm debris is eroded and dispersed throughout the system and aerosolized, increasing the risk of passerby inhaling a sufficient number of the airborne bacteria thatcauses Legionnaire’s’ disease.
There are a few good options for biofilm removal in cooling tower water treatment systems or potable water treatment systems including chlorine dioxide and Mixed Oxidant Solution.
Do you want to see the very same poisonous gas ISIS uses as a chemical weapon in YOUR neighborhood? Too late, it’s already there.
Sorry for a harsh attention gathering title here. The fact of the matter is that chlorine gas is used as a chemical weapon these days in Middle East primarily because it’s the most abundant method to treat water, and can very easily be stolen and “weaponized”. Even more frightening, many water treatment plants in the United States use chlorine gas in great abundance with thousands of tons stored on location at all times.
This is obviously not falling on deaf ears. We are already seeing the shift from chlorine gas to more sustainable disinfection methods, such as on-site sodium hypochlorite generators. However, the shift is still very slow and the challenges are all very common:
Resistance to Change Changing the status quo is typically undesirable. By nature, many people are resistant to change.
If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it If everything is running well today, why change it?
Money Talks Plus, chlorine gas is still the cheapest disinfectant you can find in the market place.
So, how do we convince people to change?
I believe it would quite help provide additional incentives and education to the water treatment plant owners and operators so that we can completely get rid of this chemical weapon in our neighborhoods.
MIOX presented Chloramine: An Effective Biocide for Produced Waters at the 2015 SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium on May 21 in Galveston, TX. The presentation by Dr. Andrew Boal focused on produced water treatment studies in Arkansas, California and Colorado using chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of electrochemically generated hypochlorite with ammonia.
Download the presentation for full details on the Methods, Procedures, Processes, Results, Observations, Conclusions of this study including but not limited to:
Chloramines produced in situ processes are very effective at inactivating SRB and ABP bacteria in produced water
Emerging technology will provide stabilized chlorine chemistry which will enable the more efficient use of biocides for disinfecting produced water
MIOX is exhibiting and presenting a new technical paper at the SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium on May 20-21 in Galveston, TX. Our technical presentation by Dr. Andrew Boal focuses on produced water treatment using MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators to generate chloramines in situ through the reaction of hypochlorite with ammonia.
Title: Chloramine: An Effective Biocide for Produced Waters
Objective/Scope: Produced waters containing high levels of oxidant demanding chemicals such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, iron, and manganese are often thought to be difficult to disinfect using oxidizing biocides such as hypochlorite. It is the goal of this paper to present evidence that chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of ammonia present in produced water with hypochlorite added as a disinfectant can effectively control microbial populations in produced water.
Methods, Procedures, Processes: Testing was accomplished by treating produced waters being held in retention ponds with a hypochlorite-based disinfectant solution produced at the pond location using a mobile on-site generation (OSG) system. OSG in this treatment scenario involves the electrolysis of sodium chloride brines to yield a hypochlorite-based oxidizing biocide solution. This solution is then injected into the produced water at a rate to ensure that the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) of the treated water is around 450 mV. Samples of both the raw and treated water were analyzed for both chemical composition as well as microbial populations.
Results, Observations, Conclusions: Raw water in this study was found to consistently have relatively high ammonia content in the range of 58 to 68 mg/L along with an ORP in the range of -87 to 190 mV. Populations of Acid Producing Bacteria (APB) and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) were found to be 1010 and 1011 MPN/mL, respectively. Treatment also resulted in a clear visual difference in the produced water, with the raw water being black in color with the treated water having a muddy brown coloration. On site analysis of the treated water fond that the ORP after oxidant injection was between 464-543 mV, a value consistent with the presence of chloramines and not free chlorine which is supported by the measurement of a free chlorine residual of only 1.1 mg/L but a total chlorine residual of 55 mg/L. Populations of APBs and SRBs in the treated water were found to be 1 and 10 MPN/mL, respectively, representing substantial reductions in the initial populations. Overall, this data clearly demonstrates that chloramines generated in situ through the treatment of high ammonia waters with OSG produced hypochlorite can effectively control the populations of key microbes in produced waters.
Novel/Additive Information: Effectively controlling microbial populations using chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of hypochlorite with ammonia often present in produced water offers the ability to achieve required disinfection with oxidizing biocides without meeting the total oxidant demand of the water being treated.
A major semiconductor manufacturing facility replaces bromine and hypochlorite water treatment regimen with MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution to recycle tooling process water for industrial cooling tower water treatment. The installation is particularly important as it proves yet again Mixed Oxidant Solution as an effective biocide for ammonia-laden waste water and in high pH environments. Furthermore, the facility will:
Save over $240,000/year on chemical costs alone with MIOX
Improve plant safety by eliminating 10,000 gallons of chemical stored on site
Reduce corrosion (mild steel & copper)
Reduce chemical dose
MIOX Senior Scientist, Dr. Andy Boal, will present a paper on the topic at the 2015 Cooling Technology Institute (CTI) conference, “Alternative To Bromine Improves Cooling Water Microbial Control and Overall Treatment”.
Watch this video to learn how MIOX works in cooling towers:
Top Ammonia producer replaces chlorine gas with MIOX sodium hypochlorite chlorine generator and is successfully controlling biological contaminants for cooling tower water treatment. MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators are designed to produce the absolute lowest cost hypochlorite on the market. Modular industrial water treatment system designs by MIOX give customers the option of switching between chlorine generator cells and MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution cells – all within the same enclosure and footprint.
Two major district energy centers in Phoenix, Arizona, USA replace cocktail of chemicals (stabilized bromine, anti-corrosion, antiscalant) with MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution for cooling tower water treatment. The stabilized bromine regimen was replaced with two (2) MIOX Vault M30s at each facility. MIOX on-site Mixed Oxidant Solution and chlorine generators require only salt, water and electricity to produce extremely effective, yet environmentally-benign water disinfectants a the point of use.
Mixed Oxidant Solution has been proven in multiple studies and applications to be better at biofilm removal and microbial inactivation, while lowering water treatment costs and improving facility safety.
MIOX Vault M30 Mixed Oxidant Solution on-site chemical generator replaces stabilized bromine at one of two major district energy facilities in Arizona