On October 16, 2015 we were thrilled to receive the award for Water Management Company of the Year at the Southwest and Midcontinent Oil & Gas Awards. The annual Southwest and Midcontinent gala ceremony was held in Dallas, TX, where hundreds of oil and gas executives gathered together to celebrate Operational Excellence, Innovation, Health & Safety and Environmental Leadership. Continue reading
One of the most challenging aspects of disinfecting produced and flowback waters is that the composition of these waters is often highly variable, especially when they are reused for additional production operations. Inspired by the chemistry that occurs when produced or flowback waters are treated with chlorine-based disinfectants, MIOX’s product development team has come up with Continue reading
MIOX presented Chloramine: An Effective Biocide for Produced Waters at the 2015 SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium on May 21 in Galveston, TX. The presentation by Dr. Andrew Boal focused on produced water treatment studies in Arkansas, California and Colorado using chloramines generated in situ through the reaction of electrochemically generated hypochlorite with ammonia. Continue reading
MIOX is exhibiting and presenting a new technical paper at the SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium on May 20-21 in Galveston, TX. Our technical presentation by Dr. Andrew Boal focuses on produced water treatment using MIOX sodium hypochlorite generators to generate chloramines in situ through the reaction of hypochlorite with ammonia. Continue reading
Hydrological fracturing continues to expand the opportunity for domestic energy production, although both the increasing demand for water to use in the process as well as the increasing amount of produced water resulting from hydrological fracturing both create environmental challenges for this critical energy production process. Due to these concerns, more producers are turning to the reuse of produced water through many hydrological fracturing jobs. Although produced water reuse is effective at mitigating water sourcing and disposal concerns, proper treatment of these waters between jobs is critical.
Microbial control in produced waters slated for reuse applications is among the most important treatment processes. Without adequate disinfection, the growth of excessive microbial populations can negatively impact well drilling and production in several ways, including causing corrosion and the souring of the well. While a number of biocides can be used to disinfect produced waters, a number of operational and economic factors must be considered when choosing the best biocide for a given job. Chemical complexity of produced water is also an often-considered factor, but until now, the impact of the produced water on microbial response to specific biocides has not been considered when choosing the best biocide.
Recently, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh published a report in the journal Environmental Science and Technology which described the results of a study they conducted regarding the impact of produced water on the inherent susceptibility of bacteria to glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite. They found that exposure of bacteria to the highly saline conditions found in produced waters caused the bacteria to respond to stresses caused by that environment on a molecular level. These changes, in turn, caused the bacteria to become more resistant to glutaraldehyde and more susceptible to inactivation with hypochlorite.
MIOX’s Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS), a hypochlorite-based chemistry, has been deployed to treat produced waters from a variety of shale plays and has consistently been proven to provide exceptional levels of microbial population control. Results from this latest study help explain the high degree of performance seen by MIOX’s customers who use MOS to disinfect produced water. As produced water reuse continues to increase in popularity, MIOX looks forward to working with partners and customers throughout the industry to provide a reliable disinfectant solution for these waters and applications.
The MIOX Blackwater mobile water treatment system has allowed frac and flowback water recycle and reuse in the Fayetteville Shale since Fall 2013. Lab data from samples taken from the produced water retention ponds show superior SRB and APB kill in addition to hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) removal and iron oxidation.
MIOX recently expanded its product line by developing the Blackwater mobile water treatment system for oil and gas water management. MIOX is the leader in water treatment chemical and sodium hypochlorite generators. MIOX’s patented Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) electrochemical technology eliminates bacteria in produced water and frac flowback water.
MIOX water treatment technology also helps with iron removal or iron oxidation and hydrogen sulfide removal. Our on-site chemical generators are capable of high treatment rates so you can recycle the most oil and gas water per day. Eliminate hydrogen sulfide, treat out SRBs and APBs, reduce iron that causes scale, and reduce chemicals on the road.
MIOX oil and gas water treatment offers a safer process at lower cost.
Watch our latest Oil & Gas Water Treatment Webinar to learn more about Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) applications in the oil and gas market.
Recycling, reusing or treating produced water does not always have to be expensive. Most Oil & Gas companies manage more water than they do hydrocarbons. While MIOX is not a 100% solution to all produced water treatment, frac water treatment and hydrogen sulfide removal needs, it does do the heavy lifting.
On-site chemical generation systems can safely and cost effectively generate disinfection products for oil and gas drilling and produced water treatment and distribution. Optional mobile units such as Blackwater, generate chemicals on site and on demand using simple reagents, increasing worker and community safety by replacing delivered chemicals at the well or production site.
The MIOX System
Cost effectively provide oxidant on site in order to maintain performance. The MIOX system uses salt and electricity to generate a chlorine-based solution that contains other, more powerful, oxidants as well. The superior mixed oxidant chemistry makes it equally effective at higher pH. Since oxidants have superior algae-killing properties, additional savings may be realized.
Two main consumables are used to compare costs for chemical generation – salt and electricity. As a result, the estimated operational costs – and savings – is a combination of the salt cost, electrical cost, and cell replacement costs. Many of our customers have been seeing steady, and in some cases, dramatically increasing cost increases, up to 10% or more per year, for bleach over the past two years.
Drivers include rising transportation costs and increasing security costs. In contrast, salt and electrical costs have been very stable over the past 5 years, offering a higher degree of confidence in future costs of operating the system; return on Investment is typically 18 – 36 months or less.
During produced and flowback water treatment, oil & gas companies want to avoid dangerous chemicals whenever possible. They also want to remove iron, treat out Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and ammonia and they want to eliminate bacteria which can later cause Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) issues, corrosion, poor well performance, and other problems. MIOX’s Mixed Oxidant helps with all of these issues. To see the safety improvements for oil & gas, click here.
The chemicals used for treating for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the oil and gas industry can sometimes be just as hazardous as the H2S itself. MIOX wants to eliminate these hazardous chemicals and let oil & gas companies create their own safe chemistry on-demand as they need it. Whether it is high volume treatment, or low volume treatments in the middle of nowhere with no resources, MIOX’s sodium hypochlorite generators will meet your needs.
Field tests and laboratory studies performed to date show that MOS tends to speed reaction rates or drive oxidation reactions to completion compared to sodium hypochlorite.
MOS breaks down odor causing compounds, such as phenols or organochloramines and remove the musty odors of geosmin and methyl isoborneol (MIB) caused when water sources suffer from algae blooms.
- Oxidize hydrogen sulfides more rapidly than chlorine and without ph adjustment.
- Lower doses of MOS achieves microbial inactivation, thus reducing the addition of chemicals to the water supply.
With sufficient dosing, MOS does not require a detention tank, filter system, and head can be maintained from the wells to distribution.
MIOX systems require only ordinary food grade salt, eliminating the transportation, handling, and storing of hazardous chemical. Employees do not need to wear protective gear, and there are no storage compatibility issues. Since the solution is stored and injected into flowback and produced water at less than one percent concentrations, the oxidant solution is not considered a hazardous material, but rather an environmentally benign yet highly effective chemical.
How It Works
Table salt (NaCl) is mixed with water to create a brine solution. This brine is then passed through MIOX’s proprietary equipment which applies an electric current, creating a Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS). This electrolysis process results in a Mixed Oxidant solution that is dilute enough to impose no Health, Safety or Environmental concerns. (See video below)
A Safer Oxidant
When compared to other chemicals, such as conventional biocides, we dramatically reduce exposure on-site. No special clean-up or spill procedures, or potentially expensive air quality testing needs to be observed with MIOX Mixed Oxidant Solution chemistry.
Common chemical oxidation methods for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an odor causing chemical formed by the action of anaerobic bacteria in water and wastewater systems include chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and ozone. Case studies and laboratory studies performed to date show that Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) tends to speed reaction rates or drive oxidation reactions to completion compared to sodium hypochlorite.
The oxidation of H2S is a two part reaction in which elemental sulfur (S0 ) is an intermediate before reaching the fully oxidized state as sulfuric acid (H2SO4). S0 is a solid that must be filtered in municipal applications, so if the reaction cannot be driven to completion with hypochlorite, additional capital equipment must be purchased. With sufficient dosing, MOS does not require a detention tank, filter system, and head can be maintained from the wells to distribution.
- Cl2 + H2S = 2HCl + S0 (reaction may stop here if the hypochlorite dose is not high enough)
- S0 + 3Cl2 + 4H2O = 6HCl + H2SO4
The combined reaction is: H2S + 4Cl2 + 4H2O = 8HCl + H2SO4
MIOX and odor control in wastewater systems: In 2013, a MIOX MOS Zuni system replaced a bleach caustic chemical program in the trickling filter and scrubber system of a wastewater treatment plant in the state of Washington. Since its installation, there have been no complaints from nearby neighbors concerning odors from the plant. The MOS is also used to prevent ponding, or excessive growth of biological material in the media of the filter. Since the introduction of the Zuni system, which uses only salt and power to generate the Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS), the operators have ceased using the caustic, providing a both safety and cost advantage. MIOX MOS was used also used to successfully replace hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a sewer collection system, decreasing the H2S concentrations from 15 mg/L to non-detectable. Because of the distributed nature of the wastewater collection system, using a small OSG system that can be remotely monitored often provides operational flexibility.
MIOX and Advanced Oxidation Processes: More recently, MOX’s on-site generators were used in combination with UV to produce hydroxyl radicals. This process is called an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) and was used to remove MIB (2-methylisoborneol), an odor causing algal byproduct from the intake water at a large municipal facility in the United States.